In-bound and out-bound transmission data can be intercepted in 'less-secure' areas, by placement of undetectable physical taps, that enable passing data to be discretely eavesdropped, intercepted, read, stored or deciphered in a lab.
We think it is pragmatic to prevent in-flight data interception completely, whether that data is encrypted or not. Why put any data in the hands of bad people?!
When we learned that optical fiber could be physically tapped, it inspired us to bring a solution to market that was easy to implement, 100% network compatible; transparent to encryption and agnostic to speed, modulation, protocol and wavelength.
While encryption helps people sleep a bit better at night, think of the hundreds and thousands of breaches with or without encryption, where emails, personal and banking information are harvested - - yet , even in encrypted systems, the IP Headers are not encrypted and could be harvested and made useful in the hands of the wrong people, which is why our emphasis is on preventing transmission data from being intercepted.
The IP Header information at the beginning of an IP packet which contains information about IP version, source IP address, destination IP address, time-to-live, etc. Two different versions of IP are used in practice today: IPv4 and IPv6.
Metadata or non- content data—“outside the envelope” information, such as sender and receiver identification, IP address, basic subscriber information, date, time, and location data—can be surprisingly revealing.
This information is often as valuable or more so for law enforcement than content data. With enough of this non-content data, law enforcement can gather and infer enormously useful information, such as whom a subject was communicating with, about what, where, and when—much of the most important information for conducting criminal investigations. Since this non- content information is not typically encrypted, law enforcement (and hackers, too!!4) has access to an enormous new trove of non-content data in the form of e-mail logs, GPS location data, and more.
Excerpt from Andrew Keane Woods, Encryption Substitutes, Hoover Working Group on National Security, Technology, and Law, Aegis Series Paper No. 1705 (July 17, 2017), available at https://lawfareblog.com /encryption-substitutes.
We are a very experienced company with deep, global system, sub system, component, sub-component, fiber and electronics control sub system development, design and manufacturing. This is evolutionary engineering that solves a big problem with elementary integration of standard products.
The A-PRIORI2 physically secure fiber link span can be used stand-alone OR as an add-on to your current or new Protective Distribution System. The A-PRIORI system is 100% network compatible, the very same as standard Single Mode Fiber throughout the worldwide enterprise networks.
Our ideal use-case combines the patented Apriori Network Systems Physically Secure Fiber link, with existing in-the-field encryption, active analytics and protective distribution systems, (PDS) alarmed carriers. These systems, in-use for decades, detect any tampering with optical fiber, by signal analysis from their mature interferometry-based sensor instrumentation. Until recently, these systems were not provisioned to determine the location of this tampering and security guards were forced to physically walk-the-line to visually inspect for tampering evidence and assess the incursion. Recent telecommunications R&D developments have made technology more accessible to the physical security market that now are currently enabling use of OTDR (optical time-domain reflectometer) technology, used commonly across telecom networks for locating breaks or faults in the network.
Given new installations only being provisioned with both detection and location determination of tampering, other issues such as false-alarms from ground noise, lightning/thunder and human intervention, reliance on security guard picking up console operator or text message alert.
This is why Apriori Network Systems and a growing group of telecommunications and cyber-security experts, companies and thought-leaders are driving this fail-safe element, to the overall optical fiber asset security tool-kit, "physically un-tappable optical fiber3".
How We Protect Your Information
Keeping secure information away from prying eyes is our chief concern. This physically secure optical fiber platform technology enhances your existing physical cable security by using deception, hardening, and end-to-end monitoring. Learn more about each here:
Deception - Our "specialty fiber" is 100% network compatible. If you held both, a specialty fiber and also a standard single-mode optical fiber, in your hand, you could not discern any difference at all. It looks and feels like regular fiber.
A hacker who has secretly placed a tap at any point(s) in the protected fiber span, would not see their intended target, the transmission data-in-motion through the Apriori fiber.
Instead, the only data the hacker’s equipment will see is Apriori Network System’s patented decoy or "chaff1" data, which is also in-motion in that very same optical fiber.
The hacker, satisfied that their storage device(s) are loading up massive amounts of data, only to be a bit surprised at how useless that data becomes or worse, learning later that they have loaded their system with a toxic blend of useless data or worse, honey-pot tokens, malware specifically designed to be delivered to data thieves.
The network’s transmission data passing through that very same fiber, (encrypted or unencrypted) safely, unimpeded passes transparently through Apriori fiber.
- We demonstrate how effective the Apriori Network Systems technology is in a brief video, showing data moving from point "A" (Alice) of the link to point "B" (Bob), while the hacker or eavesdropper (Eve) only sees (and intercepts) the chaff.
- The goal of Apriori Network System engineers is that a hacker only sees what the patented, automated intelligence generates for the hacker to see and collect, which later is taken to their lab to analyze and decipher.
Hardening - Protective Distribution Systems from Fiber Sensys Inc, Network Integrity Systems, Future Fiber Technologies and others, can be made interoperable with Apriori Network System's Secure Fiber Link. These systems reliably detect tampering and alert security guards with their government and military qualified electro-optical interrogation systems. Adding Apriori Physically Secure Optical Fiber spans, would add Data Theft Prevention to the alarmed detection system’s capability and make use of Aprori Network fiber span’s in-fiber sensing channel.
Automated Intelligence "Ai" applied
- Similar to "Ai" in telecommunications fiber optic subsystems that make decisions inside Optical Channel Monitors, Variable Gain Amplifiers to balance optical power loads in between spans automatically.
- Apriori Network Systems end-point boxes measures all in-bound transmission photo currents and makes decisions based on programmed information to distribute protective chorus of data that gets received by the tap.
- The basis for the protective, surrounding decoy or chaff data streams are derived from photo currents metrics of the in-bound transmission data which registers in our system as Power Spectral Density (PSD) which tells us how much power, per channel, to let into the system for protective operations.
- This a-priori2 knowledge, that transmission data entering the system span with a power signature, is the genesis of the company name.
- Whether Added-On or Integrated into U.S. Government Qualified PDS Vendor Systems -OR- Field Upgrades of legacy CNSSI 7003 PDS, there is no equivalent optical fiber security solution on the market! The addition of a smart data theft prevention option enables security forces to sleep better!
- Does not rely on any encryption algorithm.
- Does not take up extra processing power or latency.
- Does NOT require any key management system, which by its very software nature will always be vulnerable to hacking.
- All passive and agnostic to the optical transmission signal you want to protect.
- Take in any optical signal format, from a low-rate pluggable client signal all the way to a WDM multiplex of several ten Tbit/s, and output a physically un-tappable signal propagating on a specialty optical fiber. Underlying Technology
- Space Division Multiplexing in Short Reach Optical Interconnects (JLT 02/15/17)
- High Capacity Transmission Systems Using Homogeneous Multi-Core Fibers (JLT 03/15/17)
- High Capacity Ultra-Longhaul Power Efficient Transmission Using 12-Core Fiber (JLT 02/15/17)
- Ultra-High Capacity WDM-SDM Optical Access Network with Self-Homodyne Detection Downstream and 32QAM-FBMC Upstream (Optics Express 03/30/17)
- Ultra-Dense 16x56Gb/s NRZ GeSi EAM-PD Arrays Coupled to Multicore Fiber for Short-Reach 896Gb/s Optical Links (OFC 2017)
- Reconfigurable Radio-over-Multicore Optical Fronthaul for Seamless 2G, UMTS and LTE-A MIMO Wireless Provision (OFC 2017)
1 Chaff, (used in context of countermeasures) originally called Window by the British and Düppel by the Second World War era German Luftwaffe (from the Berlin suburb where it was first developed), is a radar countermeasure in which aircraft or other targets spread a cloud of small, thin pieces of aluminium, metallized glass fibre or plastic, which either appears as a cluster of primary targets on radar screens or swamps the screen with multiple returns.
Modern armed forces use chaff (in naval applications, for instance, using short-range SRBOC rockets) to distract radar-guided missiles from their targets. Most military aircraft and warships have chaff dispensing systems for self-defense. An intercontinental ballistic missile may release in its midcourse phase several independent warheads as well as penetration aids such as decoy balloons and chaff.
2 A-priori: (in law and legal definition use) Latin term meaning “from the cause to the effect.”
3 "Physically Un-Tappable Optical Fiber", to Apriori Network Systems stakeholders refers to the protection of critically important, transmission data. The aforementioned chaff or decoy data is imminently tappable, by patented design from Apriori Network Systems and our optical fiber partner(s).
4 Apriori Network Systems LLC added that hackers also benefit from unfettered access to unencrypted meta data!